Wednesday, April 23, 2014

The Return of the Mayor: Bogota Court Reinstates Petro

In a radio interview earlier this month, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos told journalists that he would be willing to reinstate ousted Bogota Mayor Gustavo Petro if ordered to do so by a court. “The Constitution obliges me and the laws oblige me and those who interpret laws are the judges of the Republic,” said Santos. “If some judge tells me for reasons A, B or C that I have to reinstate the mayor, I will reinstate him the next day, it is absolutely clear. Because this is how we have acted and I will continue to act.”

When he made that statement, the president probably did not expect his words to be tested so soon. Yesterday, the Superior Tribunal of Bogota ruled that Santos had 48 hours to reinstate Petro, on the grounds that his right to political participation may have been violated. The ruling specifically cited the precautionary measures requested by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) in March, which the president ignored by claiming the mayor had not exhausted domestic legal remedies.

In that sense the decision is a victory not only for Petro but for the application of international human rights law in Colombia, and for those who argued that the IACHR’s precautionary measures must be considered binding according to the country’s Constitutional Court.

Santos is now in a tight spot. The president could challenge the ruling before the Supreme Court, but he will have to abide by the decision -- and its 48 hour deadline -- in the meantime while the court studies the case. As La Silla Vacia points out, he stands to lose regardless of any move he makes. If Santos does not honor the decision he will be on unsteady legal footing, but if he accepts it it will be perceived as an admission that his initial decision to ignore the IACHR was a mistake.

Meanwhile, the head of local government in Bogota has changed hands twice since Petro’s ouster, as Labor Minister Rafael Pardo -- who immediately took the position after Petro -- has been replaced by Maria Mercedes Maldonado. While she was handpicked by the president, Maldonado’s name was included in a list of potential successors submitted by members of the ex-mayor’s political party. She officially took office as interim mayor on Monday, but it is now unclear how long her tenure will last.

News Briefs
  • Yesterday Brazilian senators passed the “Marco Civil da Internet” without changes, and the bill will now go before President Dilma Rousseff to be signed. Reuters notes that the legislation has been hailed by international net neutrality activists for striking a balance between the interests of “users, governments and corporations while ensuring the Internet continues to be an open and decentralized network.” The vote took place just before a high-profile summit on internet governance, NetMundial, which as the BBC reports, Brazil announced in the event following revelations that the US National Security Agency (NSA) had monitored President Dilma Rousseff’s personal communications.
  • Brazil’s National Truth Commission has announced that, according to its own investigation, former President Juscelino Kubitschek, who died in a suspicious car wreck in 1976, was not killed as part of a plot by the military regime.  According to O Globo, the announcement is the result of a two year analysis of documents, expert reports and photos of the scene. However, in December the São Paulo municipal truth commission came to the opposite conclusion after studying the evidence, and it is not immediately clear which has the stronger claim.
  • At least two were killed yesterday in clashes with police in a favela on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro’s upper-class Copacabana district, which were sparked after locals claimed police murdered a young man who worked as a dancer on a televised variety show. The incident has been picked up by international media (see the NYT and BBC) as yet another reason to question Brazil’s readiness to host the World Cup.
  • In a press conference yesterday, Uruguayan presidential advisor Diego Canepa announced that the specifics of the country’s historical marijuana law will be released by the end of this week, according to El Pais. In separate news, EFE reports that the head of the country’s road safety unit has announced that police will be given equipment to test drivers’ saliva for THC content to fight driving under the influence of the drug.
  • InSight Crime has published a three-part series on the challenges and accomplishments of Guatemalan Attorney General Claudia Paz y Paz. The first looks at Paz y Paz’s political acumen and savvy management of Guatemalan politics and international allies to put pressure on criminal elites in the country. The second focuses on the powerful enemies she has made as a result of her support for the genocide trial of General Efrain Rios Montt, and the third highlights the challenges she faces as she applies for another term which would start in May. The series is well complemented by just-published investigation by nascent Guatemalan news site Revista Nomada, which offers a critical look at the interest networks that influence the process by which new attorney generals are chosen in the country.
  • El Universo reports that electoral officials in Ecuador have so far annulled some 7,000 questionable signatures of a petition submitted by environmental groups hoping to force a referendum on drilling in the Yasuni Amazon region. Signature verification was disrupted last week after protestors questioned alleged regularities in the process, but has continued as scheduled this week. Earlier this month activists submitted a total of 756,000 signatures, exceeding the 584,000 requirement needed to trigger a vote.
  • Mexican authorities have announced the arrest of 46 people in Michoacan who were allegedly falsely posing as members of a local vigilante militia, Milenio reports. According to the AP, the men were wearing t-shirts similar to those worn by militiamen, but are thought to be members of the New Generation Jalisco Cartel. The groups have just over two weeks to merge with local security forces before they too will be targeted by authorities.
  • The dialogue between the Venezuelan government and opposition Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD) is set to continue this Thursday, according to MUD Secretary General Ramon Guillermo Aveledo. Meanwhile, the MUD leadership’s participation in talks has opened up fissures in the opposition between those who support dialogue and those who believe it only serves to legitimize the Maduro government. In a post for Venezuelan Politics and Human Rights, Michael McCarthy offers an extremely helpful overview of the main camps in the opposition, which can -- with some caveats -- be grouped into three sectors: followers of imprisoned opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez, followers of former presidential candidate Henrique Capriels, and the heterogeneous student movement.
  • After days of negotiations with Bolivian trade unions, the government of President Evo Morales has agreed to raise the minimum wage in the Andean country by 20 percent, La Razon reports. The BBC notes that critics say the move is an attempt to boost his support among organized labor ahead of October elections, and analyst James Bosworth compares Morales’ handling of the issue with a recent protest by enlisted military personnel.

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

El Salvador’s Gangs Are a Political Force

A new report by Salvadoran news site El Faro reveals that conservative presidential candidate Norman Quijano made overtures to the country’s most powerful street gangs during his campaign, even as he lashed out at the ruling FMLN for facilitating a truce between them.

As El Faro reports, Quijano instructed members of his campaign to reach out to leaders of the MS-13 and Barrio 18 street gangs responsible for the ongoing but shaky ceasefire.  The message, according to an intermediary approached by Quijano and to various figures in his ARENA party, was that the candidate’s promises to eradicate gangs and public condemnations of the truce were not accurate reflections of his position. If victorious, he would support a greater emphasis on violence prevention and reintegration programs, like the ones currently complementing the gang talks.

The revelation makes Quijano look hypocritical and, for FMLN supporters, has delicious irony. It not only clashes with his “tough on crime” image, but also with the rhetoric used by ARENA supporters in the U.S., who took to op-ed columns in the lead-up  to last month’s runoff election to warn that the FMLN’s “criminal ties” could turn the country into a “gang haven.”

But the El Faro report is significant for other reasons. The news site claims that Quijano was motivated to approach the gangs because their support for his rival was intimidating potential ARENA voters. Ahead of the election, gang members were allegedly bullying individuals into voting for the FMLN, reportedly even stealing the identification cards of some Salvadorans who might vote for the conservative candidate. If this was halted, in exchange the gangs would receive an open line of communication with Quijano’s government on security policies if he won the election.  

Ultimately, these advances may have contributed to Quijano’s improved performance in the polls in the second round, which he lost to President-elect Salvador Sanchez Ceren by just 0.22 percentage points.

If true, the news adds weight to the arguments of individuals like security analyst Doug Farah, who have consistently warned that the truce provides gangs with an opportunity to deepen their political influence. If voter intimidation and the risk of an increased homicide rate are all that is needed to gain concessions from authorities in in El Salvador, the country’s democracy is in dire straits.

News Briefs
  • Over the weekend, the New York Times published an article on the State Department’s interest in “mesh networks,” small-scale separate internet networks designed to provide web access to users seeking to avoid government surveillance. The paper mentioned that the USAID has allocated money to start such a network in Cuba, although the Miami Herald reported yesterday that a USAID spokesperson said that the program “is not operational” and that the grant is under review.
  • In today’s NYT, columnist Richard Cohen argues that the U.S.-Brazil relationship is perplexing given the two countries’ shared democratic values and cultural similarities, which he characterizes as a “can-do appetite for the future.” Cohen even goes so far as to describe Brazil as “a kind of tropical United States,” and is puzzled by its discrepancies with U.S. foreign policy, a problem he believes is compounded by a lack of political will on both sides.
  • Venezuela’s El Nacional reports on the status of dialogue between the government and opposition Democratic Unity Roundtable coalition (MUD). The two sides have not met since agreeing to a general outline for talks last week, and the weekend saw renewed protests in the capital city of Caracas. According to the paper, the MUD is insisting that the joint truth commission to be tasked with investigating abuses in recent weeks not be chaired by lawmakers, as the government has suggested.
  • In accordance with the controversial communications law passed in Ecuador last year, El Universo and La Hora reported last week that 31 civil society organizations in the country will now be subject to the regulations of of the Communications Ministry.  The list includes the Ecuadorean Association of Newspaper Editors (AEDEP), among other media groups, and their reclassification has come under fire from critics who say it amounts to a clear violation of the rights to freedom of association and expression.
  • On Saturday, the deadline for illegal miners in Peru to participate in government efforts to bring them into the formal economy expired with only limited accomplishments. The Wall Street Journal notes that at least 40,000 of an estimated 110,000 illegal miners ignored the deadline, a fact which El Comercio reports has forced authorities to extend the timeline of the process even as the government insists that it has so far been a success.
  • In a Monday interview with the WSJ, Colomban President Juan Manuel Santos again stressed the need for an alternative to the war on drugs, asking: "How do I explain to a peasant in Colombia that I have to put him in prison for growing marijuana when in Colorado or in Washington state, it's legal to buy the same marijuana?" The president also expressed confidence in his chances at re-election ahead of the May vote, even though polls show he may lose if the contest goes to a second round runoff.
  • The New York Times features a report on the United Nation’s failures to tackle the cholera epidemic in Haiti that was started by UN peacekeeping troops. Even as the UN denies that it is legally liable for the damages caused by the introduction of the disease, the international organization has fallen short of its promises to deliver millions of dollars in vaccinations and infrastructure development necessary to contain the outbreak.
  • The AP reports on a controversy brewing in Mexico over new food labeling rules designed to target obesity and diabetes, but which some health experts say could have the opposite effect.
  • In keeping with a transparency reform law passed earlier this year, El Universal reports that a panel of experts has presented the Mexican Senate with the names of 25 individuals deemed capable of serving on the board of Mexico's transparency agency, the Institute of Access to Information and Protection of Data (IFAI). Animal Politico has the full list, of which seven will be selected as commissioners.  

Friday, April 18, 2014

Argentine Bill Seeks to Regulate Street Protests

Since the election of Nestor Kircher in 2003, the Argentine government has gained a reputation for engaging with social movements. But a new bill proposed by members of President Cristina Fernandez’s party has been characterized as an attempt to suppress lawful protests amid growing unrest in the country.

As Pagina 12 reports, on Wednesday a group of legislators belonging to Fernandez’s Front for Victory party (FPV) presented a bill which claims to “ensure and strengthen” the rights of protestors in the country, as well as those affected by demonstrations.  Its sponsors claim it would establish “precise rules of conduct” for public protests, as well as a standard protocol for police responses to unrest.

But the law has struck many in the country, including some traditional allies of the Fernandez government, as heavy-handed. The Buenos Aires-based Center for Legal and Social Studies (CELS), for instance, has expressed concern about the idea of drawing a line between legitimate and illegitimate demonstrations, calling it a “step back from the standards of social protest that were built during recent years.”

In reality the bill cannot be easily pigeonholed as an uncompromising attack on freedom of speech. Like similar U.S. laws, it would prevent demonstrators from blocking vehicular traffic. Specifically, it would require that protests allow at least one lane open, and -- most controversially -- to register with authorities at least 48 hours prior to the event. But still, as La Nacion notes, the FPV’s sponsorship of the law demonstrates a “profound change” for a government that has striven to be seen as an ally of mass mobilizations.

For critics of the Fernandez administration, the timing of the bill is no coincidence. As both El Pais and the Associated Press point out, the bill comes amid growing discontent with inflation and economic stagnation, and may be an attempt to brace for potentially escalating protests in the coming months.

News Briefs
  • While the recent capture of yet another kingpin in Mexico (this time the 2nd in command of the Beltran Leyva Organization, or BLO) shows that President Enrique Peña Nieto is largely continuing the security policies of his predecessor, InSight Crime’s Charlie Parkinson notes that it also discredits the theory that Peña Nieto favors the BLO over other criminal enterprises in the country.
  • A special system put in place to protect journalists in Mexico in 2012 has come under intense criticism from press freedom groups in the country, which claim that the system has failed to deliver. Only 130 reporters have been accepted into the program to date, and only about one-third of these have actually received help, the L.A. Times reports.  
  • IDL-Reporteros catches leading Peruvian daily El Comercio in the act of false reporting on the recent arrest of 28 members of a political movement calling for the release of imprisoned Shining Path members, known as the Movement for Amnesty and Fundamental Rights (Movadef). The news site points out that the paper incorrectly reported rumors that Movadef members solicited funds to restart the Shining Path’s armed struggle, accusing El Comercio of either intentional deception or incompetence following the closure of its investigative reporting unit.
  • The top negotiator for the Colombian government in its talks with FARC rebels, Humberto De La Calle, has penned an op-ed for the Miami Herald in which he takes on some of the myths about the ongoing dialogue being spread by opponents of the peace process. In it, he takes on allegations that the country is being “sold” “behind its back,” as well as claims that crimes against humanity will go unpunished.
  • The Herald reports on the arrest of Cuban journalist Juliet Michelena Diaz, who was taken into custody after reporting on alleged police abuses in Havana earlier this month.  Reporters Without Borders has called on the government to release her, and others of Diaz’s independent Cuban Network of Community Communicators (CNCC) assert that she deserves  international recognition as a “prisoner of conscience.”
  • Earlier this week, the Brazilian government deployed troops to the northeastern city of Salvador in the wake of a police strike that led to looting and unrest, Folha reports. The Wall Street Journal notes that this is the second time that troops have been sent to the city to fill the gap, following a similar strike in 2012. Forrunately, police have agreed to call off the strike in response to concessions from state officials, according to O Globo.
  • Writing for The Guardian’s Global Development blog, Claire Provost offers a profile of the women that are challenging El Salvador’s strict anti-abortion laws, under which a woman can be charged with homicide for suffering a miscarriage.
  • In a new post for Venezuelan Politics and Human Rights, David Smilde and Hugo Perez Hernaiz assess the status of talks between the government and opposition in the country. For now, they argue, it appears as though the dialogue is “drowning out the students and radicalized opposition base,” but this could change in the long run if the talks don not bear fruit for the opposition.
  • After declaring a state of emergency last week in areas near the southern Peruvian volcano of Ubinas, officials in the country have announced that they will be evacuating some 4,000 residents -- as well as their livestock -- from the area, RPP and the BBC report.
  • Vice reports on the Mapuche conflict in Chile, providing an in-depth look at the tense dynamic between indigenous activists and police in the south-central Araucania region.

Thursday, April 17, 2014

UN Expert to Assess Torture, Inhumane Treatment in Mexico

The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Juan Mendez, has announced that he will be conducting his first country visit to Mexico, highlighting the ongoing struggle to rein in torture and inhumane treatment by security forces in the country’s long-running drug war.

In a press release published yesterday, Mendez announced he would be in Mexico from April 21 to May 2. During his visit, he will focus on the situation regarding cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and the status of legal mechanisms to punish torture and coerced confessions. Additionally, the Special Rapporteur said he would assess the use of controversial legal mechanism known as the “arraigo,” which allows the pre-trial detention of suspects for extended periods in order to allow investigators to build a case against them.

Mendez is visiting at the invitation of the government, but his arrival will doubtlessly draw attention to the widespread use of torture by law enforcement in the country, opening up the administration of President Enrique Peña Nieto to further criticism on this front.

There is plenty to criticize. According to a joint report published by 34 human rights groups last year ahead of Mexico’s October review in the UN Human Rights Council, law enforcement officers throughout the country continue to practice torture. The report points to 300 officially recognized cases of forced confessions since 2013, many of which have not been punished.

Still, statistics kept by the National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) suggest that the number of annual denunciations of torture and inhumane treatment, at least, has fallen recently. While this figure increased some 500 percent from 2006 to 2012 to 2,126 reported incidents, the CNDH’s 2013 annual report shows that they dropped to 1,082 last year.

There are signs of slow progress being made on the arraigo issue as well. As a report published in El Universal on Sunday noted, the emphasis on pretrial detention may be falling from its peak under former President Felipe Calderon. According to official statistics cited by the Mexican daily, the first year of the Peña Nieto administration (Dec 2012 to Nov 2013) saw a 64 percent drop in arraigo detentions compared to the last year of Calderon’s term in office (Dec 2011 to Nov 2012), and a 22 percent drop compared to the same initial period in his predecessor’s administration.

News Briefs
  • In other Mexico security news, on Tuesday prosecutors in Michoacan state announced the arrest of Apatzingan Mayor Uriel Chavez Mendoza. The mayor is accused of assisting the locally powerful Knights Templar cartel, and city councilors claim he attempted to coerce them into handing over money to cartel gunmen. News of the arrest was eclipsed yesterday by the announcement that Arnoldo Villa, the number-two member of the Beltran Leyva Organization, had been captured in a Mexico City neighborhood, as El Universal reports. As the L.A. Times points out, Villa is the latest of several high profile cartel figures to fall into authorities’ hands, illustrating the Peña Nieto’s close adherence to his predecessor’s “kingpin strategy.”
  • The Colombian government’s negotiating team has announced that it will be going on a nationwide tour, ostensibly aimed at campaigning in favor of peace and educating the public on the advances made at the negotiating table so far. Enrique Peñalosa, the main challenger to President Juan Manuel Santos ahead of May elections, has responded to the announcement by accusing his opponent of using the peace talks for “political purposes,” El Heraldo reports.
  • The AP has a quick overview of the agreement reached by Venezuelan officials and the opposition to widen a truth commission tasked with investigating recent violence in the country. Colombian Foreign Minister Maria Angela Holguin has said that the development shows that talks are making “progress” towards ending two months of demonstrations, but the news agency notes that students and opposition figures staged yet another protest in the capital yesterday. Brazilian Foreign Minister Luiz Alberto Figueiredo has also praised the ongoing dialogues and the facilitation role played by UNASUR, saying the regional body demonstrated “great strength as a space for political cooperation,” EFE reports.
  • In the wake of the revelations about the failed ZunZuneo effort, Sarah Stephens of the Center for Democracy in the Americas argues in a Huffington Post column that the program endangers opposition bloggers and USAID efforts elsewhere, and that its secretiveness is counterproductive to efforts to promote the open exchange of ideas. Meanwhile, the BBC looks at one thing that the USAID contractors right: there is immense interest in connecting to the internet on the island, and demand far outpaces the government’s efforts to allow limited email access to some cell phones.
  • Despite speculation that the ongoing drought in Brazil’s southeast or an escalating scandal involving oil giant Petrobras could hurt President Dilma Rousseff’s chances of reelection in October’s general election, she remains the clear frontrunner even as her support has fallen slightly. According to a new survey by local pollster Vox Populi, Rousseff would win the vote with 40 percent of the ballots if it were held today, while her two main rivals get only 24 percent combined, a figure which falls short of triggering a run-off vote.
  • A new report by natural resource-related conflict monitoring group Global Witness has found that Latin America accounts for two-thirds of environmental activist killings over the last decade. Nearly half of these occurred in Brazil, which is followed by Honduras as the top two most dangerous countries to champion environmental causes.
  • Yesterday, Uruguay’s Foreign Ministry announced that President Jose Mujica had added an agenda item to his scheduled meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama in the White House next month. According to El Pais, Mujica will enlist Obama’s help in fighting a lawsuit filed by Phillip Morris, which alleges that the country’s strong anti-tobacco laws violate its intellectual rights by requiring the alteration of products’ packaging.
  • InSight Crime’s Steven Dudley offers a gloomy look at the truce between El Salvador’s Barrio 18 and MS-13 street gangs, which appears to have faltered in recent months. He provides an overview of the major arguments by both supporters and critics of the gang ceasefire, ultimately concluding that regardless of any potential benefits in reduction of violence between gangs, conflict between them and authorities is objectively on the rise. Another factor that complicates the success of the truce, according to Dudley, is a disconnect between international donors and local actors that are capable of complementing it with violence prevention and other aid programs.
  • Amid rising concern about Salvadoran street gangs’ sophistication and reports of their alleged plans to attack security forces, Justice Minister Ricardo Perdomo has announced that the government would use anti-terrorism legislation to prosecute gang members who assault police and military personnel. As Reuters notes, these laws carry heavier penalties and longer mandatory sentences than standard homicide.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Venezuela Talks Make Limited Progress

The second round of talks between the Venezuelan government and opposition yesterday saw the creation of an agenda for future negotiations as well as some promising -- if relatively minor -- signs of compromise on concrete issues from both sides. 

Unlike the talks on last Friday, last night's dialogue was not broadcast on television or radio. The closed door meeting brought together the head of the Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD) coalition as well as top cabinet officials, including Vice President Jorge Arreaza and Foreign Minister Elias Jaua. The foreign ministers of Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia, as well as Vatican representative Aldo Giordano served as intermediaries.

In general, the prospects for talks to result in major changes to Venezuela's political landscape remain limited. After the meeting MUD Secretary General Ramón Guillermo Aveledo told reporters that the government had rejected opposition demands for an amnesty for individuals they deem to be political prisoners. This is one of four key demands of the MUD (as well as some elements of the student movement), along with the widening of a newly-created national truth commission, the de-politicization of key government ministries and the disarmament of militant Chavista collectives.

Still, the five-hour dialogue resulted in an important breakthrough for the truth commission. EFE notes that Vice President Arreaza announced that the two sides agreed that it should be made up of not only five Chavista and four opposition lawmakers (as Maduro had initially announced), but mutually agreed-upon figures as well. This is an important step towards legitimizing the commission, although it does nothing to address concerns about its lack of autonomy from the executive branch, which were raised recently by the broad human rights group coalition known as the Foro Por La Vida.

While the AP asserts that the talks come amid "rising doubts" of a political opening, there were signs of limited progress on two other issues as well, as Spain's El Pais reports. The government reportedly nixed a blanket amnesty, but Aveledo said that they would seek other means to address the issue. He also told reporters that the government had agreed to work with the MUD to appoint a joint medical committee to review the health of imprisoned police commissioner Ivan Simonovis, one of the longest-held alleged political prisoners in the country.

The MUD, for its part, appears to have conceded somewhat as well. The Vice President announced yesterday that the MUD leadership reportedly agreed to participate in the government's security strategy, the Plan Patria Segura, which was launched last year.

News Briefs
  • The AP looks at the mixed reaction towards Cuban doctors operating in Venezuela as part of an agreement to send subsidized oil to Havana in exchange. While the Cubans are viewed with suspicion among middle and upper class Venezuelans, for many poor residents of the South American country they offer a level of health care that was previously unavailable.  
  • A new report by the USAID Inspector General has found serious shortfalls in a U.S.-sponsored housing project in Haiti, which audit says is over budget and has built only a fraction of the 4,000 homes promised.
  • In a Wall Street Journal column, Stanley N. Albert criticizes the UN’s insistence that it is not legally liable for the cholera epidemic in Haiti that has killed 8,000 people and sickened 800,000. Alpert, who represents Haitian plaintiffs in the lawsuit against the UN, lays out the legal argument for his case, pointing to three different instances in which the international organization has assumed responsibility for innocent third-party damages.
  • Yesterday, Bolivia filed a claim against Chile over a long-running border dispute in the International Court of Justice, hoping to regain access to the sea that it lost following a military defeat in 1883. La Razon reports that Bolivian President Evo Morales traveled to the Hague to deliver the 200-page petition to the court personally. Reuters notes that Chilean President Michelle Bachelet has told local press that her government is “confident” that international law is on its side.
  • As local residents survey the damage left by the deadly fire in hills surrounding the Chilean port city of Valparaiso, the government has pointed to lax development policies as a major contributor to the disaster.  In an interview yesterday, Bachelet announced that officials would take measures to prevent affected locals from constructing homes in dangerous areas, saying the government would help relocate them.
  • The Miami Herald looks at the “cat-and-mouse game” played by dissident groups on the island and supporters in Miami who send aid money and supplies. Regular seizures of donated goods and money by Cuban state security agents, supporters argue, merits a certain degree of discretion in order to promote democracy efforts on the island.  As an example, the Herald notes that Freedom House returned a $1.7 million USAID grant for a Cuba program in 2011 because officials were “asking for too many details” on the money was spent.
  • The New York Times reports on the latest corruption scandal in Brazil, this one involving allegations that executives at oil giant Petrobras received bribes in exchange for contracts and may have been involved in a money laundering scheme. The NYT reports that the scandal, which has been linked to at least one lawmaker of the ruling PT party, is indicative of scaled back expectations for the company.
  • In a press conference yesterday, Guatemalan President Otto Perez Molina told reporters that he supported a national “debate” over authorizing presidential reelection in the country, La Prensa Libre reports. While he cautioned that he himself did not intend to present an amendment to the law, Perez characterized the lack of reelection as “the worst of the systems we could have,” saying it contributed to instability.
  • While Uruguayan President Jose Mujica has earned a reputation as the “world’s poorest president,” his recently disclosed financial statement shows that his wealth has increased 74 percent since 2012, El Pais reports. The AP notes that the president’s net worth is equivalent to some $322,000, and that Mujica claims the increase is due to the fact that he did not deposit his money into bank accounts until recently.
  • Today’s NYT features an op-ed by Robert Muggah and Ilona Szabo de Carvalho of the Rio de Janeiro-based Igarape Institute, who argue that the recent militarization of the Mare slum earlier this month constitutes a step back from the success of the city’s police pacification model, which emphasizes community policing over repression. While they acknowledge that pacification is far from perfect, they point to statistics showing a dramatic reduction in violent crime in pacified areas as indicators of its potential to improve public security and expand basic services. In a separate column for the Huffington Post, Muggah asserts that improved security in Brazil will depend on reforms to its police institutions, including the merger of military and civilian police forces.

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

A Dubious 'Disarmament' in Michoacan

The Mexican government claims to have reached a breakthrough agreement to “disarm” the vigilante militias of Michoacan state, but the pact still leaves them with considerable degree of influence and firepower.

Yesterday, 34 different “autodefensa” heads met with Alfredo Castillo, the federal government's commissioner in Michoacan, to sign a treaty outlining their organizations’ future. The pact effectively ends a tense standoff between officials and vigilante leaders, many of whom had refused a government order to disarm and incorporate themselves into the military’s “rural defense forces.”  

El Universal has a copy of the agreement, which stipulates that autodefensas must register their firearms with the state by May 10, and incorporate by the following day into either the rural defense forces or a newly-created Michoacan police unit, to be called the “rural state police.”

While this is a victory for the federal government, in reality it is far from a disarmament. As vigilante leader Jose Manuel Mireles told newspaper Milenio yesterday, the groups will only surrender their heavier weapons (the paper claims this includes heavy machine guns, rocket launchers and surface-to-air missiles), whereas the AK-47  and AR-15 assault rifles carried by many members will remain in use so long as they are registered. Translated from Milenio:
[The autodefensas] also agreed to register the heavy and smaller caliber weapons that have not been accounted for by the federal government; they will be put away and not be carried around in Michoacan territory or used to advance on to other municipalities.

Also, they will "institutionalize," or rather, their members will form part of the police or military state rural defense groups. Those who do not enter groups recognized by the federal and state governments "will hold onto" their weapons in communities or homes. Whoever fails to comply with these guidelines will be detained starting May 11.
Regardless of whether they are incorporated into legal police structures or not, any agreement that allows members to retain weapons in safehouses seems bound to encourage abuses like the torture and extrajudicial executions that rights activists have repeatedly criticized in recent years.

News Briefs
  • In The Daily Beast, Venezuelan journalist Marcel Ventura writes a biting critique of President Nicolas Maduro’s deepening of the role of the military in government, pointing to his record promotion of 200 generals in July and his nomination of multiple military officers to serve as civilian cabinet members. Due to allegations of involvement in drug trafficking, the rising profile of the military also may have worrisome consequences for corruption in the country, Ventura writes.
  • The Mexican government has announced that it will go after money laundering suspects by adopting “kingpin lists” similar to those used by authorities in the U.S. However, as the AP points out, the Mexican lists will remain confidential, available only to financial institutions, those accused of crimes and investigators.
  • Yesterday the White House confirmed that Uruguayan President Jose Mujica will meet with President Barack Obama on May 12. In a brief statement, the White House claimed the two would address mutual trade interests and collaboration on health and technology, while Mujica has said he plans on pointing out the U.S. and other wealthy nations’ “errors” in the region. Spain’s El Pais notes that Mujica has also strongly praised the U.S. ambassador to Uruguay, Julissa Reynoso, for drastically improving relations between the two countries.
  • The New York Times reports on the damage that ongoing wildfires have wrought on hilltops around the Chilean port city of Valparaiso. At least 15 people were killed as a result of the fires and some 11,000 were left homeless, according to the AP. El Mostrador notes that President Michelle Bachelet has announced she will appoint three officials to head disaster relief efforts in the two northern areas affected by the earthquake last week as well as another to oversee things in Valparaiso.
  • In Foreign Affairs Latinoamerica, the Inter-American Dialogue’s Michael Shifter profiles U.S. involvement in the discussion around revitalizing the Organization of American States. Shifter points to ways in which the Obama administration could further American interests by engaging more actively in the OAS system, instead of treating it as a “relatively minor instrument” for foreign policy, as it currently does.
  • BBC Mundo reports on Bolivia’s uniquely strategic position as a result of the unrest in Ukraine. With the U.S. and European Union reducing reliance on Russia’s exports in response to the annexation of Crimea, Bolivia may have found new markets for its natural gas, though this is complicated by its lack of a maritime port.
  • The Washington Office on Latin America has a new report on the potentials and challenges of a post-conflict political atmosphere in Colombia. It contains a comprehensive update on the major sticking points of talks with FARC rebels, as well as recommendations for U.S. aid following an eventual peace accord. According to the report, the U.S. should increase aid aimed at improving state presence in rural areas and supporting transitional justice efforts, among other objectives. Spanish news agency EFE has picked up the report, and highlights remarks by author Adam Isacson, who calls for the level of U.S. aid to Colombia to return to its 2003-07 peak of $600-$700 million annually, more than double the current amount.
  • The Venezuelan government and opposition Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD) are set to hold talks again this evening. Unlike last Thursday’s dialogue, El Nacional reports that the meeting will be held in private, and that the MUD is expected to demand a law granting amnesty to individuals allegedly held prison for political motives since 1999.
  • The L.A. Times’ Vincent Bevins looks at the unique challenges posed by the decision to host World Cup games in the Amazonian city of Manaus, a city that critics say lacks the necessary infrastructure.
  • A new Ipsos poll suggests that the two main candidates ahead of Panama’s May 4 presidential election, Jose Arias of the ruling Democratic Change (CD) party and Juan Navarro, from center-left Democratic Revolution Party (PRD), are in a dead heat. Both have 32 percent support, while current Vice President Juan Varela in not far behind with 26 percent.

Monday, April 14, 2014

Anti-Fumigation Fight Sees Tactical Victory in Colombia

Colombia’s top administrative court has struck down a controversial program authorizing coca fumigation in national parks. While authorities say fumigation in protected areas was rare anyway, the ruling comes amid growing skepticism about aerial spraying and could hasten its demise.

On March 31, the Colombian Council of State announced that it had decided that spraying in national reserves contributed to a loss of natural vegetation and irreparable damage to the environment.  The main target of the ruling was glyphosate, the pesticide most frequently used for coca eradication. Citing inconclusive evidence about the health and environmental safety of glyphosate, the tribunal found that spraying in protected areas could not be justified under the precautionary principle of policymaking.

In response to the decision, Colombian drug control officials downplayed its significance. Ricardo Restrepo, head of the country’s anti-narcotics police, told the AP that his office “had never” sprayed in natural reserves, pointing to two parks where they have refrained from acting.

Nevertheless, the decision appears to be part of a trend, as more officials in the country turn against the practice. In October, the Colombian government agreed to pay $15 million to Ecuador to compensate for health problems caused to Ecuadorean farmers by glyphosate spraying along the border as part of an aerial coca eradication campaign. The agreement sparked controversy in Colombia, where the government was accused of holding the Ecuadorean border region to higher standards than the rest of the country.

In a visit to Washington last month, Colombian Justice Minister Alfonso Gómez Méndez asked his U.S. counterparts to reconsider allocating funds for coca eradication, proposing that they be used instead to address “the causes of illicit cultivation.”

As Just the Facts’ Adam Isaacson has noted, however, the government is not unified on the issue. Officials in the National Police and Defense Ministry have stepped up praise for U.S.-supported fumigation programs, in direct response to the government’s signaled openness towards cutting them.

While the Council of State ruling only applied to spraying in certain protected areas, it is still a significant blow to the arguments in favor of fumigation. As Rodrigo Uprimny of the Bogota-based Dejusticia research center argued in a Saturday column for El Espectador, the same argument used by the court applies to spraying in general. He writes:
In this judgment, the Council of State cancels a resolution authorizing spraying in national parks, for violating [precautionary principle, or] PP. One might think, then, that the sentence only impacts spraying in those areas. But this is not the case. For procedural reasons, the council could only invalidate that resolution, because it was the norm in question; however, its doctrine on the PP is broader and attacks the legal grounds for spraying, as the damage to human health and fragile, rich ecosystems do not occur in national parks alone.

News Briefs 
  • El Espectador looks at a forward-thinking needle exchange program underway in the central Colombian city of Pereira, which supplies users of injectable drugs with clean needles as part of an effort to cut down on HIV and hepatitis transmission. The paper also notes that the program, which has support of international harm reduction advocacy organizations like the Open Society Foundations, stands in stark contrast to President Juan Manuel’s recent efforts to crack down on low-level drug trafficking by demolishing houses accused of links to “microtrafficking” in a northeast Bogota slum.
  • Even as certain Venezuelan opposition sectors remain critical of talks with the government, the opposition Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD) has announced the makeup of its delegation to continued talks. While the government’s side will be represented by Foreign Minister Elias Jaua, Libertador Mayor Jorge Rodriguez and Vice President Jorge Arreaza, El Universal reports that the MUD will be represented by deputy MUD Secretary Ramon Jose Medina and five opposition lawmakers. The first round  these talks is set to begin tomorrow.
  • Chilean President Michelle Bachelet is having a tough time in her first month back in office. On Saturday, she had to face the second emergency of her young second term, following the 8.2 earthquake on April 1. A major fire swept through the hills of the port city of Valparaiso, leaving at least 12 dead and forcing authorities to evacuate some 10,000 to evacuate. La Tercera reports that Bachelet has postponed her first planned overseas trip this week -- official visits to Argentina and Uruguay -- in order to coordinate disaster efforts.
  • According to El Universo, Ecuadorean environmental groups presented some 700 thousand signatures to electoral authorities on Saturday in favor of holding a national referendum on President Rafael Correa's decision to end restrictions on oil drilling Yasuni National Park. BBC Mundo has an excellent profile of the coalition behind the pro-referendum effort, which is made up primarily of young people disenchanted by Correa’s environmental policies.
  • Imprisoned former USAID contractor Alan Gross ended his hunger strike on Friday, reportedly in response to a request from his 91-year-old mother. According to a statement from his lawyer, Gross said similar protests would not be needed in the future as long as both the U.S. and Cuban governments “show more concern for human beings and less malice and derision toward each other.”
  • Frank Bajak of the Associated Press chronicles the phenomenon of “subnational authoritarianism” in Peru’s Ancash Region. Since coming to power in 2006, Governor Cesar Alvarez has silenced critics and reportedly bought off local media outlets. The March killing of one of his most vocal opponents, Ezequiel Nolasco, has focused attention on Alvarez’s abuse of power, but federal authorities are accused of ignoring evidence of his brutality.
  • Ultimas Noticias has an in-depth report on the impact that scarcity of basic goods in Venezuela has had on the country’s poor. According to the paper, scarcity has forced residents of low-income areas around the capital city of Caracas to flock in record numbers to private and state-managed supermarkets in the center to stock up on food.
  • The Washington Post highlights declining domestic support for Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, even as his popularity abroad continues to grow. Analysts cited by the Post claim that the president’s ambitious reform efforts have yet to benefit most Mexicans, a factor which could hurt him and his PRI in July 2015 midterm elections.
  • Sunday’s edition of Mexican daily El Universal featured an investigation into the use of the controversial legal mechanism known as the “arraigo,” which allows the pre-trial detention of suspects for extended periods in order to allow investigators to build a case against them. According to the paper, over 11 thousand people have been held under this procedure, most for “crimes against health,” a term applied to drug-related crimes. Fortunately for critics of the arraigo, there is evidence that the emphasis on pretrial detention is falling. The first year of the Peña Nieto administration saw a 64 percent drop in arraigo detentions compared to the last year of President Calderon’s term in office, and a 22 percent drop compared to the same period in his predecessor’s administration.
  • On Sunday the New York Times published a front-page article on delayed development and infrastructure projects in Brazil, which have languished due to a slowed economy and bureaucratic inertia. While the government has defended state funding on infrastructure projects despite the delays, critics say they point to the problems with Brazil’s reliance on state-controlled companies and banks to promote economic growth.